Three realms: Operations Monitoring & Evaluation Change


The change management process has been extensively studied and there are several methods to support it[1].

The steps in the process are recurrent for change processes at different socio-technical levels in the social architecture.

In a multi-stakeholder arena, several change initiatives may be ongoing simultaneously, as described at initiative management (Wikiworx).

Multiple change initiatives could be developed during overlapping time windows, taking into consideration dependencies and other initiatives in which stakeholders are involved.

Material and Content Scope

Overall both content and material stratum matter, yet depending on the stage of the initiative either of these strata will be dominant (ref Regulative Cycle).

Possible Economies

Benchmarking, exchange of best practices. This is preferably organized by a cooperative meso-level organization.


Individual, collaborative or collective action?

For interventions in a particular work system (operations), individual action must be relied upon.

Collaborative approaches are suitable (or recommended) where common or complex problems are at the origin of the change initiative, and where analysis and design has confirmed that multiple stakeholders need to act in order to solve the problem. Also when much prior knowledge must be relied upon, a collaborative approach is recommended.

See for instance Multisystemic Therapy and Collaborative therapeutics.

Via the social contract the "collective action" is enforceable by the government. Increasingly governments use collaborative approaches during the preparation of bills.

The elements of change

The below figure from Change (Adjust|Act) (Ens Wiki) uses the model elements and layers of the Archimate Architectural Framework for describing the elements of change.

Changing a facility or work system pattern (using ArchiMate's model elements)